You’ve likely heard about the menstrual cycle, also known as a period. Maybe you have a period, and even if you don’t, you definitely know someone who does. You probably know that once a month, the person having their period bleeds for about a week (sometimes more and sometimes less), shedding the uterine lining. Pads, tampons, or menstrual cups are used to collect blood and bloating or mood swings sometimes accompany this cycle. Although we know these stereotypical things about the menstrual cycle, how much do we know about ovulation?

Where does ovulation fit in the menstrual cycle?

Ovulation typically occurs about halfway through the menstrual cycle, releasing an egg through the fallopian tubes and waiting to meet up with sperm for fertilization. The typical menstrual cycle lasts between 28 and 32 days, so ovulation will occur between days 10 and 19, or about two weeks before your period. When someone is ovulating, that means they are most fertile because their egg has been released from the ovary and is essentially waiting to be fertilized. 

Although ovulation occurs within the female reproductive system, there are external signs that indicate when someone is ovulating. During this time water retention, changes in mood due to fluctuating hormones, and cramps can all occur. These are fairly typical and well-known signs. There are a few more, less obvious signs of ovulation as well.

How can you track ovulation?

During ovulation, the cervix, the area at the top of the vaginal canal connecting the vagina and the womb, becomes higher, softer, and more open. If you are someone wanting to track your ovulation, you can technically feel your cervix. A lot of people also note having a higher sex drive while ovulating, which makes sense because ovulation is the prime time to get pregnant if that is something you are trying to do. During ovulation, your cervical mucus or discharge might also change slightly. When ovulating, cervical mucus will be slightly stretchy and clear, which helps carry the sperm along to the egg. Tender breasts can also be a sign of ovulation because of the hormone fluctuations experienced at this time.

Besides these bodily changes, there have been studies proving a few other changes. Studies have shown that women who are ovulating are more likely to wear red or pink. Additionally, studies have shown that women’s voices often sound slightly higher when they are most fertile, and their natural scent is more appealing to potential sex partners. An increased sense of smell has also been cited as a sign of ovulation. Similar to your scent being more attractive to potential partners, you are more likely to pick up on their pheromones as well. Although all of these changes have been noted in various studies, they are often so subtle that you likely won’t pick up on them yourself.

How does birth control affect ovulating?

With all this talk of ovulation, it’s also important to note that some people don’t ovulate. If you are pregnant, on hormonal birth control pills, or if you are experiencing menopause, you won’t ovulate. Some women also don’t ovulate while breastfeeding, but some can. Additionally, other hormonal imbalances or medical conditions can prevent ovulation.

The human body is a truly complex landscape and taking a closer look at the menstrual cycle proves just how complex our bodies are. Although not everyone ovulates and not everyone shares every ovulation symptom, it is good to be educated and know what our bodies are up to.

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